The Japan Association of National Universities (JANU)
(As of the 1st of October, 2003)

1. Aims
The aims of the Japan Association of National Universities (JANU) are stipulated in the fourth article of the Association Regulations as follows` contribute to the development of National Universities by encouraging close communication and cooperation between National Universities.'JANU carries out surveys and research studies necessary for the advancement of National Universities as a whole, as well as projects essential for mutual cooperation and assistance in education between National Universities.

2. Historical Review
In the midst of the turmoil and poverty of post-war Japan, the concept of the `new university' was brought to fruition under the National University Establishment Law, enacted and promulgated in May 1949 as part of the rapid reforms to the educational system put in place by the occupation forces. In order to achieve equal opportunity in education, the new National Universities were established evenly on the principle of one university per prefecture, avoiding over concentration in the major cities. The National Universities in each prefecture were to become the centers of research and education, contributing to the advancement of culture and development of industry in each prefecture. The success of this new plan hinged solely on the development of facilities and educational staff in each university. Thus the JANU was established on July 13, 1950, with the express purpose of addressing these issues through strengthening cooperation between National Universities.
The founding President of the JANU, Shigeru Nanbara (President of The University of Tokyo) said that the primary purpose of the JANU was to defend the `freedom of scholarship' as specified in the new Constitution of Japan, and to establish this as an immovable principle. The issues of autonomy of universities and freedom of scholarship should not be defended solely by the individual actions and traditions of universities, as was the case before the Second World War. Rather, these should be regarded as common issues, defended and established by the collective organization and power of many universities.

3. Governance
Office bearers of the JANU consist of Members of the Board, which are elected by dividing Japan into six major regions, with Directors of the Board elected from each region. The current office bearers, including the added position of Auditor, are as follows.


President : Takeshi Sasaki     President, Tokyo University
Vice President : Hiroshi Ishi   President, Hitotsubashi University
  : Tisato Kajiyama   President, Kyushu University

Directors of the Board:
Mutsuo Nakamura President, Hokkaido University
Takashi Yoshimoto President, Tohoku University
Akira Miura President, Akita University
Yasuo Kitahara President, University of Tsukuba
Kaichi Isono President, Chiba University
Setsuho Ikehata President, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies
Masuo Aizawa President, Tokyo Institute of Technology
Yujiro Hayashi President, Kanazawa University
Yoshimitsu Amagishi President, Shizuoka University
Minoru Matsuo President, Nagoya University
Makoto Nagao President, Kyoto University
Hideo Miyahara President, Osaka University
Tomoyuki Nogami President, Kobe University
Masanori Michiue President, Tottori University
Taizo Muta President, Hiroshima University
Yusuke Sagara President, Kochi University
Akira Hasegawa President, Saga University
Moshin Morita President, University of the Ryukyus Auditor:
Hideo Akaiwa President, Gunma University
Yoshihiro Iida President, Yokohama National University

4. Organisation (operating bodies) and Administration
The JANU is a voluntary body operating from membership funds of the eighty-seven National Universities, and is not an incorporated body. The Association achieves its objectives through the following deliberative bodies, outlined from (1) to (5) below.

(1) General Assembly
● The General Assembly is the highest deliberative body of the JANU, and consists of Presidents of the National Universities, who are representatives of the Association's member universities.
● General Assemblies consist of Ordinary General Assemblies and Extraordinary General Assemblies. Ordinary General Assemblies are held twice a year (in June and November).

(2) Board of Directors
● The Board of Directors consists of the Directors of the Board and the Chairpersons of the Standing Committees. They are responsible for resolving matters related to the running of the Association.
● Regular meetings of the Board of Directors are held three times a year (in March, June and November).

(3) Board of Executive Directors
● The Board of Executive Directors consists of the President, Vice-President and the Chairpersons of the Standing Committees. It is responsible for resolving matters related to the day-to-day running of the Association, as well as matters concerning the General Assembly and the Board of Directors.
● The Board of Executive Directors meets as often as the need arises.

(4) Standing Committees
● Standing Committees consist of University Presidents as Chairpersons of the Committees, academic members selected by the Board of Directors, as well as specialist members selected from the academic staff of National Universities.
● There are eight Standing Committees, as indicated by the table below.

Standing Committee Committee Chairperson Area of Responsibility
The First Standing Committee Yasuo Kitahara
(President, University of Tsukuba)
Basic Concept, System and Organization, Management
The Second Standing Committee Mutsuo Nakamura
(President, Hokkaido University)
Matriculation of Students
The Third Standing Committee Taizo Muta
Hiroshima University)
Liberal Arts Education, Special Education at the Undergraduate Level, Student Life
The Fourth Standing Committee Tsutomu Hyodo
(President, Saitama University)
Improvement of Salary and Working Conditions for Academic Staff
The Fifth Standing Committee Seizo Miyata
(President, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology)
Academic Exchange and International Cooperation
The Sixth Standing Committee Takashi Yoshimoto
(President, Tohoku
The Seventh Standing Committee Makoto Kajitani
(President, The University of Electro-Communications)
Research, Graduate School, Lifelong Education, Research Information
The Eighth Standing Committee Iichiro Kono
(President, Okayama University)

(5) Ad hoc Committees
Ad hoc Committees are established as the need arises, in order to conduct study and research into particular areas. The Board of Directors appoints committee members.
●At present, there are four Ad hoc Committees in operation, as indicated by the table below.

Ad hoc Committee Committee Chairperson Area of Responsibility
The Ad hoc Committee
for Medical Education
Akio Suzuki
(President, Tokyo Medical and Dental University)
Medical Education
The Ad hoc Committee for
Teacher Training
Yasumasa Okamoto
(President, Tokyo Gakugei University)
Teacher Training
The Ad hoc Committee fo
r Investigation into National
University Corporations
Tisato Kajiyama
(President, Kyushu University)
Investigation into
National University Corporations
The Ad hoc Committee for
Preparation for the new
Federation of National Universities
Hiroshi Ishi
(President, Hitotsubashi University)
Preparation for the new Federation of National Universities

5. Office Staff
The JANU has on staff a Director and two Assistant Directors, under which two sections are placed: the Management Section (responsible for management, accounts and liaison) and the Conference Section (responsible for conferences, planning and investigations). There are a total of 12 members of staff.

6. Activities
Since its establishment in 1950, the JANU is now in its fifty-third year of operation in 2003. The following is a review of the representative activities of the Association so far, arranged in ten-year periods:
The first decade: After the Second World War, the multi-track higher education system was reformed into a more homogenous system of independent four-year universities. From the outset there were major problems in administration, finance and infrastructure, which JANU worked conscientiously to overcome.
The second decade: As in the West, campuses were rife with disputes dealing with issues such as the revision of the U.S.-Japan Security Treaty and the Anti-Vietnam War movement. The JANU worked towards the appeasement of student revolt, as well as promoting the autonomous government of individual Universities by eliminating outside pressure.
The third decade marked the period of high economic growth. It was also a time when youngsters of the post-war baby boom generation reached university entrance age. The JANU tackled the problem of rapid rise in student numbers and took measures to increase student intake. At the same time, the Association finally achieved its long-awaited goal of concurrently administering the Scholastic Test of the first stage of entrance examinations for all National Universities.
In the fourth decade, the JANU concentrated its efforts on the reform of entrance examinations at National Universities, including the common first stage Scholastic Test initiated a decade earlier. In order to promote international exchange with universities in various countries, an invitation program for foreign university presidents was launched, which continued for the next twenty years.
The fifth decade marked the fiftieth anniversary of the end of World War II. The government and the Ministry of Education (which was renamed the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in January 2001) launched various inquiries to consider the possible reform and reorganisation of universities and the reform of the education system. In response to these inquiries, the JANU has worked hard at putting forth and articulating views reflecting the opinions of National Universities. In addition, on the issues of liberal arts education and equal opportunity between men and women in society, the JANU has brought together various opinions, including voices that have urged the Association to play a more active role in these areas. On the international exchange front, the JANU has made concerted efforts to promote short-term mutual exchanges with undergraduate students from various countries, especially with students from the United States and Europe. In addition, the Association has cooperated with other public and private universities to establish a UMAP (University Mobility in Asia and the Pacific) International Secretariat Office in Japan. With the imminence of issues before us about the form of establishment of National Universities as Independent Administrative Corporations, the Association has spared no effort in tackling the problems.
Since entering our fifth decade and the 21st Century, the Association has made concerted efforts to deal with the government policy of National University reform (the establishment of National University Corporations and the radical reorganisation and merging of National Universities) from the standpoint of National Universities. We have established ad hoc committees for this issue and discussed the proper form of National Universities. At the same time, we have participated in government meetings to offer our opinion as the main party making up the backbone of Japanese Education and Research. The JANU has worked tirelessly to create National University Corporations that would take into account the special educational and research characteristics of National Universities.
After the National University Corporation Law was passed, the JANU continued to promote the view that this law should be operated in deference to each National Universityユs autonomy. The Association continues to lobby the government in various ways through official requests and the issuance of position papers. Also, while most of our members, the National Universities, are busily preparing their own administrative structures under the new system, the Association continues to provide back up through solving common problems and equipping our members with the latest information.

7. Towards the establishment of the new Federation of National Universities
As described above, Japanese National Universities are being renewed as University Corporations in April 2004, being transformed from institutions under the direct auspices of the government to institutions having a high degree of autonomy to manage themselves. Of course, this will have a great bearing on the nature of the JANU from now on.
With this in mind, the Association is considering its own renewal as the new Federation of National Universities; its precise form and activities are being discussed on the Ad hoc Committee for Preparation for the new Federation of National Universities. The Association intends to be renewal developmentally as a corporation aggregate (KOEKIHOJIN) in April of next year.

8. The 87 Member Universities of the JANU:

1. Hokkaido University   President, Mutsuo Nakamura
2. Hokkaido University of Education   President, Noriaki Murayama
3. Muroran Institute of Technology   President, Hiroaki Tagashira
4. Otaru University of Commerce   President, Yoshiaki Akiyama
5.Obihiro University of Agriculture andVeterinary Mdeicine  President, Naoyoshi Suzuki
6.Asahikawa Medical College  President, Sunao Yachiku
7. Kitami Institute of Technology  President, Hideyuki Tsunemoto
8. Hirosaki University  President, Masahiko Endo
9. Iwate University  President, Kenichi Hirayama
10. Tohoku University  President, Takashi Yoshimoto
11. Miyagi University of Education  President, Kaoru Yokosuka
12. Akita University  President, Akira Miura
13. Yamagata University  President, Fujiro Sendo
14. Fukushima University  President, Yoshikazu Usui
15. Ibaraki University  President, Takeo Miyata
16. University of Tsukuba    President, Yasuo Kitahara
17. Utsunomiya University  President, Hiroto Tabara
18. Gunma University  President, Hideo Akaiwa
19. Saitama University  President, Tsutomu Hyodo
20. Chiba University  President, Kaichi Isono
21. The University of Tokyo  President, Takeshi Sasaki
22. Tokyo Medical and Dental University  President, Akio Suzuki
23. Tokyo University of Foreign Studies  President, Setsuho Ikehata
24. Tokyo Gakugei University  President, Yasumasa Okamoto

25. Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology

 President, Seizo Miyata
26. Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music  President, Ikuo Hirayama
27. Tokyo Institute of Technology  President, Masuo Aizawa
28. Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology  President, Rikuo Takai
29. Ochanomizu University  President, Masuko Honda
30 The University of Electro-Communications  President, Makoto Kajitani
31. Hitotsubashi University  President, Hiromitsu Ishi
32. Yokohama National University  President, Yoshihiro Iida
33. Niigata University  President, Akira Hasegawa
34. Nagaoka University of Technology  President, Yo Kojima
35. Joetsu University of Education  President, Takashi Watanabe
36. Yamanashi University  President, Yoji Yoshida
37. Shinshu University  President, Atsushi Komiyama
38. The Graduate University for Advanced Studies  President, Keiichi Kodaira
39. National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies  President, Toru Yoshimura
40. Toyama University  President, Hiroshi Tokizawa
41. Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University  President, Akira Takaku
42. Kanazawa University  President, Yujiro Hayashi
43. Fukui University  President, Shinpei Kojima
44. Gifu University  President, Toshio Kuroki
45. Shizuoka University  President, Yoshimitu Amagishi
46. Hamamatsu University School of Medicine  President, Toshihiko Terao
47. Nagoya University  President, Minoru Matsuo
48. Aichi University of Education  President, Kenichi Tahara
49. Nagoya Institute of Technology  President, Hiroaki Yanagida
50. Toyohasi University of Technology  President, Tatau Nishinaga
51. Mie University  President, Ryuichi Yatani
52. Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology  Presidet, Etsujiro Shimemura
53. Shiga University  President, Kenichi Miyamoto
54. Shiga University of Medical Science  President, Ryuichi Kikkawa
55. Kyoto University  President, Makoto Nagao
56. Kyoto University of Education  President, Takatoshi Murata
57. Kyoto Institute of Technology  President, Kosuke Kimura
58. Osaka University  President, Hideo Miyahara
59. Osaka University of Foreign Studies  President, Shun Korenaga
60. Osaka Kyoiku University  President, Takashi Inagaki
61. Hyogo University of Teacher Education  President, Masataka Nakasu
62. Kobe University  President, Tomoyuki Nogami
63. Nara University of Education  President, Yasunori Yanagisawa
64. Nara Womenユs University  President, Kenji Kume
65. Wakayama University  President, Akira Oda
66. Nara Institute of Science and Technology  President, Koji Torii
67. Tottori University  President, Masanori Michiue
68. Shimane University  President, Yuichi Honda
69. Okayama University  President, Iichiro Kono
70. Hiroshima University  President, Taizo Muta
71. Yamaguchi University  President, Hirosih Kato
72. The University of Tokushima  President, Toshihiro Aono
73. Naruto University of Education  President, Yasushi Mizoue
74. Kagawa University  President, Yoshitsugu Kimura
75. Ehime University  President, Masayuki Komatu
76. Kochi University  President, Yusuke Sagara
77. Fukuoka University of Education  President, Yusaku Matsuo
78. Kyushu University  President, Tisato Kajiyama
79. Kyushu Institute of Technology  President, Teruo Shimomura
80. Saga University  President, Akira Hasegawa
81. Nagasaki University  President, Hiroshi Saito
82. Kumamoto University  President, Tatsuro Sakimoto
83. Oita University  President, Iwao Nakayama
84. Miyazaki University  President, Akinobu Sumiyoshi
85. Kagoshima University  President, Yukihiro Nagata
86. National Institute of Fitness and Sports In Kanoya  President, Hidetaro Shibayama
87. University of the Ryukyus  President, Moshin Morita